The route is protected by pre-placed clip points permanently bolted to the rock or wall. Sport Climbing is found in all indoor climbing walls and common in most of the major European climbing locations. The difficulty of the route is displayed using the French or F grading system.
The route is protected by placing specialised gear in the various cracks or faults in the rock so that it locks in position when loaded. The two most common types of device are 'Nuts' which are wedge shaped and designed to jam into a V shaped crack and Spring Loaded Camming Devices, 'Cams' or ' Friends' which are designed to grip in parallel sided cracks.
Communication between belayer and climber is essential
Equipment: Check that the rope is clearly certified as a single dynamic climbing rope. Either end of the rope should display. on a taped label.
Ropes: Do not use unmarked ropes unless you personally know the history of the rope. Avoid the use of any rope that is predominantly white or black, as this colour indicates rope is static or non-stretch. Use of such a rope for leading could cause injury or death.
Always run rope through hands to check for knots, tangles or faults in the rope.
Ensure that the rope is at least twice as long as the route is high by
checking in the guidebook or asking the climbing centre staff. If the
belayer is not tied in, then it is prudent to tie a knot into the end of
Quickdraws: Consist of two snap gate karabiners clipped into a short sling stitched sling.
The 'loose' karabiner is clipped into the protection and the 'tight' karabiner is clipped onto the climbing rope.
In sport climbing indoor or out the number of quick draws you will require can be seen from the wall itself or from the guidebook. The majority of indoor climbing walls have quick draws placed in situ.
In 'Trad' climbing, this is a judgement call by the climber based on his interpretation of the route in the guidebook and his own experience of routes of a similar nature.
No fall is safe – just less dangerous or more dangerous
This should be attached by a larks foot knot to your belay loop. It should then be shortened and clipped into your gear loop. This will then be clipped into the lowering off point at the top of a climb. (see below)
b. Belay Technique
Warn the climber if he places his foot where the rope might trip him in a fall.
Do not belay with the rope at right angles to the wall directly below the climber such that the climber could fall on to the rope.
c. Clipping Techniques
the karabiner must be held firm and the rope pressed through the gate.
Practise clipping with either hand with the gates both left and right. Z clip.
You must not clip your lead rope into the karabiner at the top of the climb if it has a rope already in place. To do so would cause damage to both ropes as the potentially heavily weighted and fast moving lowering off rope could cause extreme friction damage to the static in situ rope.
d. Fall Factors
See Page 6
e. The Top and The Descent
Sport Climb (indoors)
At the top of the indoor lead route, it is important to clip the top karabiner for the descent, only lower off the top quick draw if you are unable to reach the top lowering off point.
Sport Climb (outside) At the top of the sport route, you should expect to find a single or multiple lowering off points. This will require you to thread your climbing rope through the lowering off point. To avoid putting yourself at risk, or the possibility of dropping the climbing rope the following procedure should be followed.
When belaying, you should never consider the climber to be 'safe' even when clipped in with the Daisy chain.
Every student must understand in detail the dynamics of risk prior to the third quick draw being successfully clipped.
It is only at that point, that the belayer can be confident that the fall should not end up with ground contact.
It is important to demonstrate, under controlled conditions, the fall taken when the climber attempts to but fails to secure the third clip.
Points to emphasise:
Aim: To teach and practice the procedures involved in lead climbing. Clipping with either hand how to optimise your stance when clipping, went to clip, how to avoid a Z clip, the dangers of back clipping.
Small diameter 9.4/9.2 mm single lead rope with low impact force.
Assessment for Level I
The student will:
Aim: To achieve Level I assessment without the use of the safety rope.
Special Conditions: No one may attempt Level II lead climbing without having completed Level I and been personally signed off by the Senior Instructor. No child under the age of 14 years is allowed to lead belay.
years and older
Under normal circumstances this is the youngest aged that children will be permitted to lead in Level 2
12 to 13 years
Children of exceptional ability will, as potential competition climbers and members of the elite squad, be permitted to lead subject to informed consent from their parents*.
Under 12 years old
May only lead climb if one of the parents is a competent lead climber and belayer and is actually adjacent to the instructor who is belaying or is belaying the child themselves.
*The child's parents must be given sufficient information to be able to give their informed consent to permit them to participate in lead belaying and climbing activities. This should include a formal demonstration of lead climbing and belaying including falling and the potential risks involved.
Special Equipment Required: Small diameter 9.4/9.2 MM single lead rope with low impact force.
Assessment for Level 2
The student will:
Demonstrate the ability to climb smoothly.
Lead belaying minimum age 14 years
Trad Gear familiarisation
Aim: To achieve confident and safe level of lead belaying.
A basic understanding of trad gear placement and its uses
Assessment for level 3